Rare and Not-So-Rare – Finding 100 Impactful Targets for Modeling Disease-Gene Associations in Alternative Animals

What genes are good candidates for alternative animal modeling?

I set out to determine which important disease genes are good candidates for creating animal models in C. elegans. The first step was to turn to a database that has a comprehensive listing of human genes and their disease association. The DisGeNet database has nearly every human gene annotated for its level of disease association (17,549 genes as of June 2019). They provide a curated list that has 8400 genes with Gene-Disease Association (GDA) score of 0.1 or higher. For the top 1000 genes the GDA scores are 0.69 or higher, which indicates they scored high for having a significant disease association. These top 1000 were selected for examination of their ortholog status in C. elegans using the Diopt database. 749 othologies were detected, of which 411 had clear reciprocal nature (back-blast gives starting gene for the ortholog as best hit). The top 100 of these genes for high homology and detectable loss-of-function consequence were selected.

Tabulation of disease-associated genes with properties favorable for C. elegans humanization

The top 100 are tabulated in gene-alphabetical format below. These 100 genes have 8360 variants as known to be as problematic (Path, Likely Path, or VUS).

Use a search tool to quickly find out if your favorite gene occurs below.

(Note: gene knock out for 58% of these genes results in lethality.)

Human geneDisease associationNematode gene (LOF)Problem variants
ABCB1Colchicine resistance; Inflammatory bowel diseasepgp-9 (development)3
ABCB6Dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria; Microphthalmia; Pseudohyperkalemiahmt-1 (development)11
ABCC1Peripheral Neuropathymrp-1 (development)38
ACTG1Baraitser-Winter syndrome 2; Deafness, autosomal dominant 20/26act-4 (lethal)57
ADAAdenosine deaminase deficiency; Severe combined immunodeficiency C06G3.5 (development)81
ADAM10Reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura; Alzheimer diseasesup-17 (lethal)5
AGO2Alcoholic Intoxication, Chronicalg-1 (lethal)1
AHRRetinitis pigmentosa; Malignant neoplasmahr-1 (development)2
ALDH2Alcoholic Intoxication, Chronicalh-1 (lethal)3
APEX1Malignant neoplasmexo-3 (development)2
ATG5Spinocerebellar ataxiaatg-5 (morphology)2
BMS1Aplasia cutis congenitaY61A9LA.10 (lethal)1
CALRschizoaffective disordercrt-1 (lethal)1
CATtype 2 diabetes mellitusctl-1 (development)2
CDC42Takenouchi-Kosaki syndromecdc-42 (lethal)10
CHEK1Malignant neoplasmchk-1 (lethal)3
CIB2Deafness, autosomal recessive; Usher syndromecalm-1 (morphology)11
CTSBKeratolytic winter erythemaF57F5.1 (lethal)0
CTSDCeroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 10asp-4 (morphology)103
DECR1SchizophreniaF53C11.3 (morphology)1
EIF4EAutismife-3 (lethal)0
ENO1Enolase deficiencyenol-1 (lethal)0
EPHX1Hypercholanemia; Malignant neoplasm; W01A11.1 (development)3
ERCC1Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndromeercc-1 (lethal)17
ERCC2Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome 2; Trichothiodystrophy 1, photosensitive; Xeroderma pigmentosum, group Dxpd-1 (lethal)72
ERCC3Trichothiodystrophy 2, photosensitive; Xeroderma pigmentosum, group Bxpb-1 (lethal)33
FASNObesity diseasefasn-1 (lethal)83
FHFumarase deficiency; Leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancerfum-1 (lethal)1830
G6PDHemolytic anemia, G6PD deficient (favism); Resistance to malaria due to G6PD deficiencygspd-1 (lethal)91
GAD1Cerebral palsy, spastic quadriplegic, 1 unc-25 (movement)35
GAPDHhepatocellular carcinomagpd-2 (lethal)0
GCH1Dystonia, DOPA-responsive, with or without hyperphenylalaninemia; Hyperphenylalaninemia, BH4-deficient, Bcat-4 (movement)76
GGT1Glutathioninuria; chronic hepatitis BH14N18.4 (development)1
GNA12ulcerative colitisgpa-12 (lethal)2
GPIHemolytic anemia, nonspherocytic, due to glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency gpi-1 (development)11
GPTnon-alcoholic fatty liver diseaseC32F10.8 (lethal)46
GSK3Bbipolar disordergsk-3 (lethal)0
GSRHemolytic anemia due to glutathione reductase deficiency gsr-1 (lethal)0
HCCSMicrophthalmoscchl-1 (lethal)8
HDAC2chronic obstructive Airway Diseasehda-1 (lethal)1
HPRT1 HPRT-related gout; Lesch-Nyhan syndromehprt-1 (morphology)55
HRASBladder cancer, somatic; Congenital myopathy with excess of muscle spindles; Costello syndrome; Nevus sebaceous or woolly hair nevus, somatic; Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome, somatic mosaic; Spitz nevus or nevus spilus, somatic; Thyroid carcinoma, follicular, somaticlet-60 (lethal)81
HSP90AA1Breast Cancerhsp-90 (lethal)0
HSPA4bipolar disorderhsp-110 (lethal)0
HSPA5hepatocellular carcinomahsp-3 (lethal)0
HSPA9Anemia, sideroblastic, 4; Even-plus syndromehsp-6 (lethal)6
HSPD1Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 4; Spastic paraplegia 13, autosomal dominanthsp-60 (lethal)35
IDH1Glioma, susceptibility to, somaticidh-1 (development)3
ILKcardiomyopathypat-4 (lethal)33
ISYNA1Malignant neoplasminos-1 (development)0
ITPR1Gillespie syndrome; Spinocerebellar ataxiaitr-1 (lethal)139
MAP2K1Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 3mek-2 (lethal)93
MAP2K7Malignant neoplasmmek-1 (development)2
MAPK1gastric carcinogenesismpk-1 (lethal)2
MAPK14schizophreniapmk-1 (lethal)1
MFN2Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease; Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathyfzo-1 (development)202
MRE11Ataxia-telangiectasia-like disordermre-11 (development)515
MSH2Colorectal cancer; Mismatch repair cancer syndrome; Muir-Torre syndromemsh-2 (development)1905
MTHFRHomocystinuria; Neural tube defects; Schizophrenia; Thromboembolism; Vascular diseasemthf-1 (development)212
MTORFocal cortical dysplasia; Smith-Kingsmore syndromelet-363 (lethal)65
MTRHomocystinuria-megaloblastic anemia, cblG complementation type; Neural tube defects, folate-sensitive, susceptibility tometr-1 (development)200
NME1Neuroblastomandk-1 (lethal)144
NT5C2Spastic paraplegiaY71H10B.1 (lethal)14
ODC1Colonic adenoma recurrenceodc-1 (fecundity)5
P4HBCole-Carpenter syndrome 1 pdi-2 (lethal)2
PCPyruvate carboxylase deficiencypyc-1 (development)329
PCNAAtaxia-telangiectasia-like disorder 2 pcn-1 (lethal)1
PCYT1ASpondylometaphyseal dysplasiapcyt-1 (development)15
PEPDProlidase deficiencyK12C11.1 (lethal)60
PGK1Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 deficiencypgk-1 (development)28
PHGDHNeu-Laxova syndrome; Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiencyC31C9.2 (development)42
PLK1Neoplasmsplk-1 (lethal)0
PNPImmunodeficiencyK02D7.1 (movement)46
PNPLA2Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathyatgl-1 (lethal)66
PPP3CAArthrogryposis, cleft palate, craniosynostosis, and impaired intellectual development; Epileptic encephalopathy, infantile or early childhood, 1tax-6 (movement)8
PSEN1Acne inversa; Alzheimer disease; Cardiomyopathy, dilated; Dementia, frontotempora; Pick diseasesel-12 (development)134
PTDSS1Lenz-Majewski hyperostotic dwarfismpssy-1 (morphology)6
RAD51Fanconi anemia, complementation group R; Mirror movements 2; Breast cancer, susceptibility torad-51 (lethal)11
RAP1AKabuki syndromerap-1 (lethal)0
RPS19Diamond-Blackfan anemia 1rps-19 (lethal)37
SDHBGastrointestinal stromal tumor; Paraganglioma and gastric stromal sarcoma; Paragangliomas 4; Pheochromocytomasdhb-1 (lethal)276
SDHCGastrointestinal stromal tumor; Paragangliomasmev-1 (lethal)134
SDHDMitochondrial complex II deficiency; Paragangliomas; Pheochromocytomasdhd-1 (development)146
SFRP1Narcolepsysfrp-1 (morphology)1
SLC6A2Orthostatic intolerancedat-1 (movement)50
SMARCA1brain malformationisw-1 (lethal)1
SMARCA2Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromeswsn-4 (lethal)90
SMARCB1Coffin-Siris syndrome; Rhabdoid tumors; Schwannomatosissnfc-5 (lethal)93
SMC1ACornelia de Lange syndrom3him-1 (lethal)110
SMC3Cornelia de Lange syndromesmc-3 (lethal)75
SOD1Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1 sod-1 (development)43
SOD2Cardiomyopathy, Dilatedsod-3 (development)2
TATTyrosinemiatatn-1 (lethal)59
TBPSpinocerebellar ataxia; Parkinson diseasetbp-1 (lethal)3
TIMM8AMohr-Tranebjaerg syndromeddp-1 (development)19
TYMSColorectal Carcinomatyms-1 (lethal)2
USO1Malignant neoplasmuso-1 (morphology)0
VCPAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis 14, with or without frontotemporal dementia; Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 2Y; Inclusion body myopathy with early-onset Paget disease and frontotemporal dementia 1cdc-48.2 (lethal)77
WLSBone densitymig-14 (lethal)31
XPR1Basal ganglia calcificationY39A1A.22 (development)5

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